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Author Topic:   Gorilla Genome Decoded
RAZD
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Message 1 of 20 (655138)
03-07-2012 6:08 PM


per

Gorilla genome could hold key to the human condition (BBC)
and
Scientists decipher genetic code of gorillas (BBC video)

quote:
Researchers in Cambridge have deciphered the genetic code of the gorilla - the last of the Great Ape genuses to be sequenced.

Writing in the journal Nature, the scientists say that researchers can now begin to examine the similarities and differences between the apes.

Genome sequences of humans, chimpanzees and orangutans are already published.
Initial comparisons confirm that chimpanzees are our closest relatives, sharing 99% of our DNA. Gorillas come a close second with 98%, and orangutans third with a 97% share.

That reflects the evolutionary history of apes. Genome comparison indicates that the human lineage separated from orangutans 14 million years ago, gorillas 10 million years ago, and chimps 6 million years ago.


Which should not be a surprise to most here.

quote:
Although on average we are closest to chimps, many of our individual genes are more like those of gorillas.

Among them is a gene that enables us and gorillas to hear better than other apes.

Until now, some scientists had thought that the development of hearing was what enabled us to develop language - but as a result of this research, we now know this theory is wrong.

Fifteen percent of the human genome is closer to the gorilla than the chimpanzee, and 15% of the chimpanzee genome is closer to the gorilla than to humans.


Now that may confuse some people.

Anyone got the Nature link?

Enjoy


we are limited in our ability to understand
by our ability to understand
Rebel American Zen Deist
... to learn ... to think ... to live ... to laugh ...
to share.


• • • Join the effort to solve medical problems, AIDS/HIV, Cancer and more with Team EvC! (click) • • •

Replies to this message:
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RAZD
Member
Posts: 19544
From: the other end of the sidewalk
Joined: 03-14-2004
Member Rating: 3.3


Message 2 of 20 (655139)
03-07-2012 6:10 PM
Reply to: Message 1 by RAZD
03-07-2012 6:08 PM


links and information
rather than a debate thread?

we are limited in our ability to understand
by our ability to understand
Rebel American Zen Deist
... to learn ... to think ... to live ... to laugh ...
to share.


• • • Join the effort to solve medical problems, AIDS/HIV, Cancer and more with Team EvC! (click) • • •

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AdminModulous
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Message 3 of 20 (655141)
03-07-2012 7:37 PM


Thread Copied from Proposed New Topics Forum
Thread copied here from the Gorilla Genome Decoded thread in the Proposed New Topics forum.
    
AdminModulous
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Message 4 of 20 (655142)
03-07-2012 7:40 PM
Reply to: Message 1 by RAZD
03-07-2012 6:08 PM


Anyone got the Nature link?

Nature link, I believe.
This message is a reply to:
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Coragyps
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From: Snyder, Texas, USA
Joined: 11-12-2002
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Message 5 of 20 (655144)
03-07-2012 7:50 PM


http://www.nature.com/...al/v483/n7388/full/nature10842.html

opened the paper for me without me signing in to my account. That's pretty unusual* for anything from Nature. Let me know if it doesn't work for you - I can email pdfs to any who want one.

*Like Rush Limbaugh endorsing Barak Obama unusual.......


Replies to this message:
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RAZD
Member
Posts: 19544
From: the other end of the sidewalk
Joined: 03-14-2004
Member Rating: 3.3


Message 6 of 20 (655149)
03-07-2012 8:56 PM
Reply to: Message 5 by Coragyps
03-07-2012 7:50 PM


Hi Coragyps,

opened the paper for me without me signing in to my account. That's pretty unusual* for anything from Nature. Let me know if it doesn't work for you - I can email pdfs to any who want one.

My experience is that they let a few current issue articles be available until the next issue (or something like that), so grab a read while you can.

quote:
Gorillas are humans’ closest living relatives after chimpanzees, and are of comparable importance for the study of human origins and evolution. Here we present the assembly and analysis of a genome sequence for the western lowland gorilla, and compare the whole genomes of all extant great ape genera. We propose a synthesis of genetic and fossil evidence consistent with placing the human–chimpanzee and human–chimpanzee–gorilla speciation events at approximately 6 and 10 million years ago. In 30% of the genome, gorilla is closer to human or chimpanzee than the latter are to each other; this is rarer around coding genes, indicating pervasive selection throughout great ape evolution, and has functional consequences in gene expression. A comparison of protein coding genes reveals approximately 500 genes showing accelerated evolution on each of the gorilla, human and chimpanzee lineages, and evidence for parallel acceleration, particularly of genes involved in hearing. We also compare the western and eastern gorilla species, estimating an average sequence divergence time 1.75 million years ago, but with evidence for more recent genetic exchange and a population bottleneck in the eastern species. The use of the genome sequence in these and future analyses will promote a deeper understanding of great ape biology and evolution.


a, Phylogeny of the great ape family, showing the speciation of human (H), chimpanzee (C), gorilla (G) and orang-utan (O). Horizontal lines indicate speciation times within the hominine subfamily and the sequence divergence time between human and orang-utan. Interior grey lines illustrate an example of incomplete lineage sorting at a particular genetic locus—in this case (((C, G), H), O) rather than (((H, C), G), O). Below are mean nucleotide divergences between human and the other great apes from the EPO alignment. b, Great ape speciation and divergence times. Upper panel, solid lines show how times for the HC and HCG speciation events estimated by CoalHMM vary with average mutation rate; dashed lines show the corresponding average sequence divergence times, as well as the HO sequence divergence.

The gray lines show the anomalous traits.

quote:
Since the middle Miocene—an epoch of abundance and diversity for apes throughout Eurasia and Africa—the prevailing pattern of ape evolution has been one of fragmentation and extinction48. The present-day distribution of non-human great apes, existing only as endangered and subdivided populations in equatorial forest refugia43, is a legacy of that process. Even humans, now spread around the world and occupying habitats previously inaccessible to any primate, bear the genetic legacy of past population crises. All other branches of the genus Homo have passed into extinction. It may be that in the condition of Gorilla, Pan and Pongo we see some echo of our own ancestors before the last 100,000 years, and perhaps a condition experienced many times over several million years of evolution. It is notable that species within at least three of these genera continued to exchange genetic material long after separation4, 49, a disposition that may have aided their survival in the face of diminishing numbers. As well as teaching us about human evolution, the study of the great apes connects us to a time when our existence was more tenuous, and in doing so, highlights the importance of protecting and conserving these remarkable species.

*Like Rush Limbaugh endorsing Barak Obama unusual.......

LOL

Enjoy


we are limited in our ability to understand
by our ability to understand
Rebel American Zen Deist
... to learn ... to think ... to live ... to laugh ...
to share.


• • • Join the effort to solve medical problems, AIDS/HIV, Cancer and more with Team EvC! (click) • • •

This message is a reply to:
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Tangle
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Posts: 6080
From: UK
Joined: 10-07-2011
Member Rating: 1.9


(1)
Message 7 of 20 (655158)
03-08-2012 3:03 AM


It's hard to say why, but I've always felt that there's something about gorillas that makes them feel closer to us than chimps. Something in their eyes. It's like they're more grown up - chimps are like fractious children in comparison. Gorillas seem more, well, considered....

My feelings on this matter overrule the genetic evidence, so obviously I now have to form a semi-religious organisation and campaign to overturn the obviously defective science. I'll call my new theory Irreducable Empathy.

Just send money.


Life, don't talk to me about life - Marvin the Paranoid Android

Replies to this message:
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Dr Jack
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Posts: 3507
From: Leicester, England
Joined: 07-14-2003


Message 8 of 20 (655159)
03-08-2012 3:38 AM
Reply to: Message 1 by RAZD
03-07-2012 6:08 PM


Sequencing != decoded, or deciphered for that matter
Sorry, pet peeve. It really annoys me when people describe genome sequencing as "decoding" or "deciphering"; it's nothing of the sort.

This is cool though. The rate at which we're sequencing new genomes is going to usher in a radical new era of biology.


This message is a reply to:
 Message 1 by RAZD, posted 03-07-2012 6:08 PM RAZD has responded

Replies to this message:
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RAZD
Member
Posts: 19544
From: the other end of the sidewalk
Joined: 03-14-2004
Member Rating: 3.3


(2)
Message 9 of 20 (655166)
03-08-2012 6:23 AM
Reply to: Message 7 by Tangle
03-08-2012 3:03 AM


off topic mutters
Hi Tangle.

My feelings on this matter overrule the genetic evidence, so obviously I now have to form a semi-religious organisation and campaign to overturn the obviously defective science. I'll call my new theory Irreducable Empathy.

Just send money.

I've often wondered how easy it would be to set up a foundation here to further the study of ID, solicit funding and provide grants for kids to go to university and study biology. Want to help it go international?

Enjoy


we are limited in our ability to understand
by our ability to understand
Rebel American Zen Deist
... to learn ... to think ... to live ... to laugh ...
to share.


• • • Join the effort to solve medical problems, AIDS/HIV, Cancer and more with Team EvC! (click) • • •

This message is a reply to:
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RAZD
Member
Posts: 19544
From: the other end of the sidewalk
Joined: 03-14-2004
Member Rating: 3.3


Message 10 of 20 (655167)
03-08-2012 6:45 AM
Reply to: Message 8 by Dr Jack
03-08-2012 3:38 AM


Re: Sequencing ≠ decoded, or deciphered for that matter
Hi Mr Jack

peek at ≠

Sorry, pet peeve. It really annoys me when people describe genome sequencing as "decoding" or "deciphering"; it's nothing of the sort.

Yeah, it's rooted in the thought of DNA being a code rather than a recipe, and thus encourages poor thinking.

This is cool though. The rate at which we're sequencing new genomes is going to usher in a radical new era of biology.

And the more apes added the more fascinating will be the evidence. Any idea where they are with gibbons, siamangs?


we are limited in our ability to understand
by our ability to understand
Rebel American Zen Deist
... to learn ... to think ... to live ... to laugh ...
to share.


• • • Join the effort to solve medical problems, AIDS/HIV, Cancer and more with Team EvC! (click) • • •

This message is a reply to:
 Message 8 by Dr Jack, posted 03-08-2012 3:38 AM Dr Jack has responded

Replies to this message:
 Message 11 by Dr Jack, posted 03-08-2012 1:45 PM RAZD has responded

  
Dr Jack
Member
Posts: 3507
From: Leicester, England
Joined: 07-14-2003


Message 11 of 20 (655190)
03-08-2012 1:45 PM
Reply to: Message 10 by RAZD
03-08-2012 6:45 AM


Re: Sequencing ≠ decoded, or deciphered for that matter
Hi RAZD

peek at ≠

I know how to do ≠, I just don't generally bother. I was a C++ programmer for a very long time, after all

Yeah, it's rooted in the thought of DNA being a code rather than a recipe, and thus encourages poor thinking.

DNA is neither a code nor a recipe; both are wildly inaccurate analogies. In any case, it wasn't really that which got my goat; it's that sequencing does very little to actually increase our understanding of the genome. It's the work that follows that does that.

And the more apes added the more fascinating will be the evidence. Any idea where they are with gibbons, siamangs?

No idea. But a quick search turned up this which you can trawl through to find out.


This message is a reply to:
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Replies to this message:
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RAZD
Member
Posts: 19544
From: the other end of the sidewalk
Joined: 03-14-2004
Member Rating: 3.3


(1)
Message 12 of 20 (655194)
03-08-2012 2:31 PM
Reply to: Message 11 by Dr Jack
03-08-2012 1:45 PM


Re: Sequencing ≠ decoded, or deciphered for that matter
Hi again Mr Jack

No idea. But a quick search turned up this which you can trawl through to find out.

Looks like 3 projects in progress on the Northern white-cheeked gibbon Nomascus leucogenys and one recently completed on the Golden-mantled howling monkey Alouatta palliata.

Comparisons will be interesting.

Enjoy.


we are limited in our ability to understand
by our ability to understand
Rebel American Zen Deist
... to learn ... to think ... to live ... to laugh ...
to share.


• • • Join the effort to solve medical problems, AIDS/HIV, Cancer and more with Team EvC! (click) • • •

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jar
Member
Posts: 30837
From: Texas!!
Joined: 04-20-2004
Member Rating: 1.7


(1)
Message 13 of 20 (655197)
03-08-2012 2:53 PM
Reply to: Message 12 by RAZD
03-08-2012 2:31 PM


Re: Sequencing ≠ decoded, or deciphered for that matter
And a very exciting one on the origin of Multicellularity.

Anyone so limited that they can only spell a word one way is severely handicapped!

This message is a reply to:
 Message 12 by RAZD, posted 03-08-2012 2:31 PM RAZD has acknowledged this reply

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Dr Jack
Member
Posts: 3507
From: Leicester, England
Joined: 07-14-2003


Message 14 of 20 (655198)
03-08-2012 3:11 PM
Reply to: Message 13 by jar
03-08-2012 2:53 PM


Re: Sequencing ≠ decoded, or deciphered for that matter
Exciting indeed, did you read the pdf of the rationale?
This message is a reply to:
 Message 13 by jar, posted 03-08-2012 2:53 PM jar has responded

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jar
Member
Posts: 30837
From: Texas!!
Joined: 04-20-2004
Member Rating: 1.7


Message 15 of 20 (655199)
03-08-2012 3:17 PM
Reply to: Message 14 by Dr Jack
03-08-2012 3:11 PM


Re: Sequencing ≠ decoded, or deciphered for that matter
Read and copied to watch future developments.

AbE: and I too use bang equals.

Edited by jar, : bang


Anyone so limited that they can only spell a word one way is severely handicapped!

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