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Author Topic:   Spiral of chemical elements and electron overjumping
Oleg281
Inactive Member


Message 1 of 15 (112148)
06-01-2004 5:08 PM


Tools of construction of system of elements.
Tools of construction of system of elements.
http://www.genevo.org/B.htm

An old model of atom does not answer many questions about properties. And... I decided to offer you a new one. It is called "ball-bearing model of atom". It is very flexible and it can be twisted!

www.genevo.org/F.htm

Mechanisms of cyclicity in atom
It is logical, that shown cyclicity for d-elements is shown also in other families.

http://www.genevo.org/Z1.htm

I have tried to simplify last model maximum.

Secondary periodicity see at figure (the schedule of the data).

www.genevo.org/S.htm

In my last work I show secondary periodicity on this property for s-elements on the example of the data on electron affinity. In the same place, on the example of d-elements other logic of the tableis visible, - not periodicity but cyclicity.
Some properties are cyclic and not correspond to the periodic table.
I offer to your attention http://www.genevo.org/H.htm
It is visible on the schedule that on the property of electron affinity s-elements behave variously before p and d-elements . Before ū - elements electron affinity grows, before d-falls.
Even on this property it is possible to speak about available laws which are not clear yet.

The overjumpings of electrons and the order of orbital filling.
http://www.genevo.org/E.htm

Don't you want to make some comments? I thought I made a good table.

Specific properties are inherent in each family of chemical elements.
When constructing the table of periodic specific properties of one elementís family, other families has this property partly (comparably) periodical or as an absent one (is not shown). A parity of families with expressed properties or partly expressed properties or not expressed properties is natural.
Specific properties of elementís families determine the form of the table. All tables are naturally connected.
The continuation of the table of overjumpings of electrons http://www.genevo.org/OD.gif - the table of electrochemical series (fragment). http://www.genevo.org/E.htm
In this periodic table an electrochemical series of potentials of 3d-elements and 5d-elements is very similar. It is shown on the graph. http://www.genevo.org/Ef1.gif And a series of electrochemical potentials of 4d-elements is differing from series of potentials of 3d-elements and 5d-elements. If to turn this series and increase on-1 you see that areas of maxima and minima of this series will coincide with the areas of maxima and minima of electrochemical series of potentials of 3d-elements and 5d-elements. Graph http://www.genevo.org/Ef2.gif

To explain more understandable the overjumpings of electrons I publish my periodic table of overjumpings of electrons.
www.genevo.org/OD.gif www.genevo.org/OF.gif

There are overjumpings of electrons:
must be for La f^1 but really d^1
must be for Cr 3d^4 4s^2 but really 3d^5 4s^1

I bring to your attention my additions to the classical representation about orbital filling. These additions explanes the reasons of electronís overjumping . These overjumpings arise as follows: during orbitalís filling with electrons, power areas form inside atom - with superfluous quantity of electrons and insufficient quantity. It causes overjumpings of electrons to "energetically unprofitable" orbitals - i.e. on orbitals, located further from a nucleus (as is known, in atom every electron settles down so that his energy is minimal, that corresponds to his greatest communication with a nucleus). Letís take La for example. f-electronís overjumping to d-orbital is an indemnification of an overload with electrons in one of areas of atom. http://www.genevo.org.

In my spiral table http://www.genevo.org/S.gif. you can see that quantity of fields and single electrons in atom naturally for each level. First, two electrons of the last new family settle down in the field of the previous new family. (For f-family the previous new family is d, for d-family - p.) These two electrons create the general power field with electrons from the specified previous families. The following few electrons of the last new family create the general power field. For f - families the field is formed from 8 żŽŚÍÚūÓŪÓ‚, for d-family - from 6 ones. The rest electrons fill in areas of families, arisen before. For f-elements it is areas p and s, for d - s.

This message has been edited by Oleg281, 07-15-2004 03:38 AM

This message has been edited by Oleg281, 07-19-2004 01:19 PM

This message has been edited by Oleg281, 08-16-2004 08:04 AM


Replies to this message:
 Message 2 by Eta_Carinae, posted 06-01-2004 5:53 PM Oleg281 has not yet responded
 Message 11 by Oleg281, posted 06-22-2004 2:46 PM Oleg281 has responded

  
Oleg281
Inactive Member


Message 5 of 15 (112332)
06-02-2004 5:04 AM
Reply to: Message 4 by Eta_Carinae
06-02-2004 12:19 AM


Seriously
I do not deny classical theories, I complement them.
The new theory I suggest simultaneously systematizes elements in a spiral, and explains where is the lantanoid's place.

This message has been edited by Oleg281, 06-02-2004 04:05 AM


This message is a reply to:
 Message 4 by Eta_Carinae, posted 06-02-2004 12:19 AM Eta_Carinae has responded

Replies to this message:
 Message 6 by Eta_Carinae, posted 06-02-2004 10:49 AM Oleg281 has not yet responded

  
Oleg281
Inactive Member


Message 7 of 15 (112427)
06-02-2004 2:58 PM


Yes, I understand your anxiety. The duality of properties of some elements shown by me guards you.I have Sc in the area of p - elements (being d - an element), that it seems firstly illogical. Traditionally Sc's dual properties are not as considered as Cu's. Cu is in the area of s - elements and it has dual properties obviously (properties according to valency as s - elements have, and physical properties as d - elements own). Sc has valency, which is a characteristic for p-elements, but physical properties as it shown for d-elements.
My model shows all elements with dual properties. And this new.
  
Oleg281
Inactive Member


Message 8 of 15 (112429)
06-02-2004 3:02 PM


Many thanks for the remark about not opening of some parts of my site. If it will be repeated again-that again will not open - please,inform me necessarily.
  
Oleg281
Inactive Member


Message 9 of 15 (113228)
06-07-2004 6:42 AM


overjumpings
To explain more understandable the overjumpings of electrons I publish my periodic table of overjumpings of electrons.
www.genevo.org/OD.gif www.genevo.org/OF.gif

There are overjumpings of electrons:
must be for La f^1 but really d^1
must be for Cr 3d^4 4s^2 but really 3d^5 4s^1

The first figure www.genevo.org/OD.gif shows periodic overjumpings of electrons which d-elements have. Elements up to violet circle (V, Zr, Ir, Hn) have an external sublevel s2. —r, Nd, Pt, Mt, occurs overjumping of electron from s2 to s1 (electronic configurations see on http://www.webelements.com/webelements/elements/text/H/econ.html) All four elements are connected with an arrow. The same principle have d-elements which have a jump of electron to s2-sublevel (in figure these elements are connected among themselves with arrows).
The second figure www.genevo.org/OF.gif shows periodic overjumpings of electrons which f-elements have. We see that f-elements at which overjumpings are observed, are similar on structure of a d-sublevel. Similarities are shown with arrows.
In the table periodicity of chemical properties by chemical activity is shown also. Chemical activity determines by orbital and electronic structure. Such elements as Sc, Mn, Zn are most chemically active in d-family. At the figure they are placed around of a column called S 2 in the periodic table. The same it is possible to tell about chemically active ū-and f-elements.
This table together with a number of others shows interrelation of orbitals in atom. More in detail about this interrelation in my following work.

This message has been edited by Oleg281, 06-09-2004 02:32 PM


Replies to this message:
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Oleg281
Inactive Member


Message 10 of 15 (115970)
06-17-2004 5:24 AM
Reply to: Message 9 by Oleg281
06-07-2004 6:42 AM


The kaleidoscope of periodic tables.
http://www.genevo.org/E.htm

This message has been edited by Oleg281, 06-17-2004 03:36 PM


This message is a reply to:
 Message 9 by Oleg281, posted 06-07-2004 6:42 AM Oleg281 has not yet responded

  
Oleg281
Inactive Member


Message 11 of 15 (117542)
06-22-2004 2:46 PM
Reply to: Message 1 by Oleg281
06-01-2004 5:08 PM


The overjumpings of electrons and the order of orbital filling.
About the same scheme of cyclicity it is possible to make for all other families.
Except of cyclicity of orbitals 3 2 3 2 for d-elements, there exist such cyclicities Ė ďreversedĒ, "regressive" and "progressive". For their construction it is necessary to number orbitals.
But also other cyclicity exists which is connected with growth of number of electrons in atom. When electron is filling , the cyclicity is defined by occurrence of every new electron instead of orbital for two electrons.
Different types of cyclicity connected with representing of different properties of atom www.genevo.org/E.htm
This message is a reply to:
 Message 1 by Oleg281, posted 06-01-2004 5:08 PM Oleg281 has responded

Replies to this message:
 Message 12 by Oleg281, posted 06-29-2004 7:39 AM Oleg281 has responded

  
Oleg281
Inactive Member


Message 12 of 15 (119876)
06-29-2004 7:39 AM
Reply to: Message 11 by Oleg281
06-22-2004 2:46 PM


The secondary periodicity
Secondary periodicity is connected with repeated filling of everyone
orbital by the second electron and with relative positioning of orbitals.
Secondary periodicity is more brightly expressed at last families.

Similarity by orbital structure can be various.
Orbitals may be focused in one direction, thus,
electronic configurations of compared atoms may not coincide.

update www.genevo.org./E.htm


This message is a reply to:
 Message 11 by Oleg281, posted 06-22-2004 2:46 PM Oleg281 has responded

Replies to this message:
 Message 13 by Oleg281, posted 07-15-2004 4:34 AM Oleg281 has not yet responded

  
Oleg281
Inactive Member


Message 13 of 15 (124664)
07-15-2004 4:34 AM
Reply to: Message 12 by Oleg281
06-29-2004 7:39 AM


Secondary periodicity is obvious
I have tried to simplify last model maximum.

Secondary periodicity see at figure (the schedule of the data).

www.genevo.org/S.htm

I think that is connected with the order of orbital filling

This message has been edited by Oleg281, 07-15-2004 03:38 AM


This message is a reply to:
 Message 12 by Oleg281, posted 06-29-2004 7:39 AM Oleg281 has not yet responded

  
Oleg281
Inactive Member


Message 14 of 15 (125236)
07-17-2004 5:36 AM


Ball-bearing model of atom
An old model of atom does not answer many questions about properties. And... I decided to offer you a new one. It is called "ball-bearing model of atom". It is very flexible and it can be twisted!

www.genevo.org/F.htm

Mechanisms of cyclicity in atom

Electron affinity in secondary periodicity for p-elements www.genevo.org/Z1.htm

This message has been edited by Oleg281, 07-19-2004 01:21 PM


  
Oleg281
Inactive Member


Message 15 of 15 (134287)
08-16-2004 9:05 AM


Tools of construction of system of elements.
Tools of construction of system of elements.

http://www.genevo.org/B.htm


  
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