Ok, now I will sound like Faith. There is kinda a lot of jargon in there but I would like to wrap my head around it.
In addition to what Dr. A said, the replication of mtDNA is severely down regulated during embryogenesis which reduces the per cell copy number creating a mitochondrial bottleneck.This also serves to restrict the mitochondrial haplotypes that are eventually put into oocytes.
Means? When the mtDNA is reproducing it is restricted. Like only a very small number of mitrochondria contibute to the final embryo? I don't get "down regulated" in here though.
Now to put this in the context of this discussion (which I haven't been working hard enough on). This means that the "slate is wiped clean" or almost so regularly. Thus changes we see have to be due to new mutations?
Ok let me try to see if I got it. And I'll make up some example numbers that you can correct.
Let's say that an ovum has 30 mitochondria. As it starts to develop for the first while they don't multiply. So let's say that they end up with 10 cells lines before the normal multiplication starts. Each of these has 3 mitochondria.
That sort of makes 10 bottlenecked subpopulations out of them One of these goes into the germ line with many fewer mutations than the female parent appeared to pass on.
I have an old Samsung S4 android phone. The easiest way to move files to and from is to cable from it's micro USB port to a USB port on my PC. The non standard cable for apple is one reason I won't buy one. Then I just copy files as if the phone is another drive on my PC. That should never be a problem. Also the phone supports a micro USB card. I told it to write fotos taken with it to that card not the limited internal storage.
The bandwidth is in volume per time period. What you are describing is total size. So I have a 30 MB/second bandwidth cap on my internet service (for downloads) but I have hundreds (actually unlimited) capacity in total bytes movable up or down. Jar, describes accessing a photo 2 or 5 or 10x. The only thing that has to do with bandwidth is how fast a 1 meg foto will move up or down. I'd say in general that you can NOT exceed your bandwidth. It is set by the server. But you can, by moving the picture many many times exceed your allowable amount of data moved.
I'd say that the governments have moderately screwed up the conversion. It's been decades now and we should all be done but they backed out of forcing supermarkets to go purely metric. That means that things are measured metrically but labeled in both for things like meat. They tend to be advertised in lbs on signs since that makes the price look cheaper. This has kept people muddled up only partly converted.
For old guys like my friends (I will not say "and me") the conversion for speeds is mostly complete. That's because speedometers and speed signs converted totally. It's not exactly complete for us (actually for anyone) since the fools to our south are unable to handle the change so acceleration times in car mags and such are in seconds to 60 mph (with an admixture of seconds to 62 mph).
Most of what I read has metric with imperial in brackets which makes me crazy because I remember a number for a lot of things like distance, height, weight but then can't remember which system it was in.
Most people I know measure their size/weight in imperial but I only use metric.
Temperature was converted in the 70's and I'd say everyone is on Celsius for that. At this point I find F temperatures difficult even though I grew up with them. I know immediately how warn or cool or hot or col C is but have to make a rough conversion of a F temp to get a feel for it. That is other than around 100 F. That one I just know is hot.
Doing renovations back in the 80's I got slightly messed up by the conversion. Out 2x4's (and others) went metric in those dimensions. But they are cut extremely close to the metric size for 2 and 4 inches (which, of course they are not, more like 1.5 x 3.5 dry). But they are not exactly so when in the middle of a reno you mix old and new they don't line up precisely. That problem went away quickly enough.
Plywood thickness is the same ( I am almost 100 % ) sure, close to the old but in mm. However the other dimensions stayed in imperial so they fit in with old stuff (at least I think that is the case). I don't know if the building codes now call for metric in things like stud spacing.
To summarize: speed, temp is pretty much totally converted. liquid measure mostly but people use a mix in the kitchen depending on how old they are. I convert all recipes to metric if they aren't already. most people still give their weight in lbs (I don't) Things like building heights etc re mixed in many people's minds.