which is still, in essence, calling someone a liar.
It isn't calling someone a liar- it is telling somebody they are wrong. Lies are deliberately told untruths. That means the person knows what the truth is, but chose to say something other than the truth. Since we are unable to determine whether somebody knows the truth and said something contrary to it, we can only point out that a person's position is flawed, or that what they claim as factual is erroneous.
We can say 'That's wrong, here's why', but 'You are lying' is simply unacceptable.