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Author Topic:   Smoking-Gun Evidence of Man-Monkey Kindred: Episode I - endogenous retrovirus
Member (Idle past 5715 days)
Posts: 3085
From: Munich, Germany
Joined: 08-09-2002

Message 10 of 20 (183015)
02-04-2005 4:03 AM
Reply to: Message 1 by ApostateAbe
02-03-2005 12:29 AM

Excellent post.

There are more examples of recent activity in ERVs with phylogenetic implications for example polymorphic HERVs in humans

Turner G, Barbulescu M, Su M, Jensen-Seaman MI, Kidd KK, Lenz J.
Insertional polymorphisms of full-length endogenous retroviruses in humans.Curr Biol. 2001 Oct 2;11(19):1531-5.

An interesting HERV-K (one of the more active groups i.e. the Class II HERVs) that groups chimps and gorillas more closely than chimp to human.

Barbulescu M, Turner G, Su M, Kim R, Jensen-Seaman MI, Deinard AS, Kidd KK, Lenz J. A HERV-K provirus in chimpanzees, bonobos and gorillas, but not humans.
Curr Biol. 2001 May 15;11(10):779-83.

And human unique HERVs (again HERV-K)

Barbulescu M, Turner G, Seaman MI, Deinard AS, Kidd KK, Lenz J.
Many human endogenous retrovirus K (HERV-K) proviruses are unique to humans.Curr Biol. 1999 Aug 26;9(16):861-8.

Keep your eyes peeled in Virology over the next few months...a certain EvC poster has a paper in press on the evolution of all ERV classes in anthropoid primates :)
Wait a bit longer and the comparative expression in different non-human primate tissues will be published as well.....

A paper on the expression of HERVs in different human tissues just came out in January.

Seifarth W, Frank O, Zeilfelder U, Spiess B, Greenwood AD, Hehlmann R, Leib-Mosch C. Comprehensive analysis of human endogenous retrovirus transcriptional activity in human tissues with a retrovirus-specific microarray.J Virol. 2005 Jan;79(1):341-52.

For functional uses of ERVs, I have often brought up syncytin..of great interest to me, an example of convergent evolution for Syncyctin has been found in mouse where an unrelated element i.e. not a HERV-W or HERV-FRD related element is responsible for placenta formation in mice, just like in humans

Dupressoir A, Marceau G, Vernochet C, Benit L, Kanellopoulos C, Sapin V, Heidmann T. Syncytin-A and syncytin-B, two fusogenic placenta-specific murine envelope genes of retroviral origin conserved in Muridae.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Jan 18;102(3):725-30. Epub 2005 Jan 11.

Finally, a very important paper just came out in Nature demonstrating one way the genome controls HERVs so that they don't retrotranspose out of control and destroy the genome.

Esnault C, Heidmann O, Delebecque F, Dewannieux M, Ribet D, Hance AJ, Heidmann T, Schwartz O. APOBEC3G cytidine deaminase inhibits retrotransposition of endogenous retroviruses.
Nature. 2005 Jan 27;433(7024):430-3.

Junk DNA seems to be pretty busy these days...with lots of nice data supporting evolution...tough luck for Charlton Heston and the rest of the creationists :)

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