You could sequence the samples and compare the genes (and non-gene portions) to published sequences of various critters. If you found genes coding for, say, hemoglobin, you would know that that sample wasn't from a elm tree or a Pseudomonas, but I think you would need an actual library of sequences to get down to the Family or Genus level of identification.
the LATEST book enumerating the now acceptable 22 extinct HUMANS that went before us.
Kofh - what happens to your house of cards when the NEXT book, or actually the next paper in Nature, appears and adds number 23 to the "acceptable" list?
Will you even reflect for a moment on that possibility?
"The Christian church, in its attitude toward science, shows the mind of a more or less enlightened man of the Thirteenth Century. It no longer believes that the earth is flat, but it is still convinced that prayer can cure after medicine fails." H L Mencken