This paper appears to be yet another fragment of evidence for the non-random evolution of protein codes that carry biological advantage at the cellular level which pretty much started in the study of bacterial resistance to antibiotics.
Has nobody thought of the general mechanism of this and investigated it?
That mechanism would appear to be a Natural Law of Dynamic Equilibrium. According to this Natural Law, the reactions that take us from DNA to RNA to protein goes both ways. All of the conditions for the reverse reaction occur in the cytoplasm.
PROTEIN CODES DNA!
It does so in the cytoplasm. Protein fragments are coded into DNA (occasionally but enough to mechanically influence randomness) The codes for fragments of proteins are biologically useful to the cell, especially in terms of toxins where fragments and variants are capable of blocking the binding site of the toxin, or in the production of mirror images of the toxin that can bind to the toxin, even stressing it to breaking point.
And we should expect a tendency towards coding DNA for any protein that enters a cell.
To prove this general principle would be quite simple to test as a general rule that solves all of the statistical issues that are quoted against modern Evolutionary Theory.
Whilst DNA is not changed in aligning animo acids into proteins, it is eventually broken down into individual molecules. I am considering this overall 'reaction' in the cytoplasm.
I am considering the reverse of the reaction that we usually consider. The bonding of an animo acid to an RNA triplet is independent of whether the amino acid and the triplet are 'free' or a part of a chain.
The reaction that we normally consider is where RNA is in a chain and the amino acids free. I am asking you to visualise the reverse situation where the amino acid enters in a chain in an environment of free RNA triplets. The triplets will be aligned then acted upon by the polymerase to form a chain. The end product is the same as in the 'forward' reaction. There is an RNA chain that 'matches' the protein chain.
However, the protein has now transcribed the RNA.
Similarly, with free triplets of DNA can be 'coded' by a formed RNA strand.
So whilst we are considering the overall results of a complex chain of reactions, I believe that the concept of Natural Equilibrium is appropriate and also conceptually useful. It is the situation where we have a big forwards arrow to show a reaction that a reaction predominantly progresses in one direction, but then there is the smaller arrow that cannot be overlooked beneath going in the reverse direction.
It would appear that we have overlooked that little reverse arrow which would explain how prokaryotes produce biologically active new genes and leads to an explanation of the mechanical weighting of the randomness of creating completely new genes in evolution.
Or has anybody done the experiment? I have not heard of it.