quote:New species have been created by domesticated animal husbandry, but the initial dates and methods of the initiation of such species are not clear. For example, domestic sheep were created by hybridisation, and no longer produce viable offspring with Ovis orientalis, one species from which they are descended. Domestic cattle, on the other hand, can be considered the same species as several varieties of wild ox, gaur, yak, etc., as they readily produce fertile offspring with them.
The best-documented creations of new species in the laboratory were performed in the late 1980s. William Rice and G.W. Salt bred fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, using a maze with three different choices of habitat such as light/dark and wet/dry. Each generation was placed into the maze, and the groups of flies that came out of two of the eight exits were set apart to breed with each other in their respective groups. After thirty-five generations, the two groups and their offspring were isolated reproductively because of their strong habitat preferences: they mated only within the areas they preferred, and so did not mate with flies that preferred the other areas. The history of such attempts is described in Rice and Hostert (1993).
Diane Dodd used a laboratory experiment to show how reproductive isolation can evolve in Drosophila pseudoobscura fruit flies after several generations by placing them in different media, starch- and maltose-based media.
Drosophila speciation experiment.svg
Dodd's experiment has been easy for many others to replicate, including with other kinds of fruit flies and foods. Research in 2005 has shown that this rapid evolution of reproductive isolation may in fact be a relic of infection by Wolbachia bacteria.
Just from the artificial speciation section on Wikipedia.
We have observed new species differentiating from parent species. We've directly observed it, both in the wild and in the lab.
I know that you're going to respond by saying that these are all examples of "microevolution" because a fly didn't turn into a dog, and a cat didn't turn into a fish. But the entirety of the micro/macroevolution distinction is nothing more than an arbitrary rationalization, a way to dismiss unwanted evidence and restrict acceptable evidence into a subset that wouldn't be found according to the actual predictions of evolution.
New species form as existing species differentiate. It happens. It's happened for the entire history of life on Earth. You share a distant common ancestor with me, and a still more distant common ancestor with a dog, and a still more distant common ancestor with a tree.
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