Re: Great so far but I'm slow so humor me by expanding some.
Too busy to really be involved, but I have been lurking
Anyway, I was thinking that since the topic is "How do geologists know..." the topics of grain shape (or roundness) and sorting should be covered, since those are major factors that help determine deposition environment.
Also you mentioned chemical and mechanical weathering in the context of the production of the sediment; but don't those processes also occur during and after lithification? And don't those characteristics give us clues as to the depositional environment?
Whoever calls me ignorant shares my own opinion. Sorrowfully and tacitly I recognize my ignorance, when I consider how much I lack of what my mind in its craving for knowledge is sighing for... I console myself with the consideration that this belongs to our common nature. - Francesco Petrarca
"Nothing is easier than to persuade people who want to be persuaded and already believe." - another Petrarca gem.
Ignorance is a most formidable opponent rivaled only by arrogance; but when the two join forces, one is all but invincible.