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Author Topic:   White skin and blue eyes origin.
RAZD
Member (Idle past 349 days)
Posts: 20714
From: the other end of the sidewalk
Joined: 03-14-2004


(2)
Message 8 of 73 (866465)
11-11-2019 4:37 PM
Reply to: Message 1 by ski zawaski
11-11-2019 10:06 AM


Welcome to the fray ski zawaski, I see Phat has already given you my ten second tour of formatting posts.

I believe that white skin, blue eyes and blonde hair originated in Africa from dark skinned people interbreeding with albino people. ...

Albinos lack pigment in their eyes as well as skin and hair, making them pink or redish, not blue. Blond hair is also not white and not due to loss of pigment.

... I think the albino was regarded as a prize, maybe as a king queen or leader of a group. ...

The only instance I have heard of where albinos were revered was on Easter Island, where they were kept in caves and regarded as seers.

... Their migration was mainly north to Scandinavia, staying together as a closed society with no more interbreeding with any dark skin people.

Iv'e read that scientists say white skin blue eyed people are a product of living in northern cold climates with very little sunlight causing less melatonin in the skin. ...

White skin, blue eyes, blond hair, all appear to be separate mutations that occurred in European areas:

quote:
White Skin Developed in Europe Only As Recently as 8,000 Years Ago Say Anthropologists

The myriad of skin tones and eye colors that humans express around the world are interesting and wonderful in their variety. Research continues on how humans acquired the traits they now have and when, in order to complete the puzzle that is our ancient human history. Now, a recent analysis by anthropologists suggests that the light skin color and the tallness associated with European genetics are relatively recent traits to the continent.

An international team of researchers as headed by Harvard University’s Dr. Iain Mathieson put forth a study at the 84th annual meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists recently.

Based on 83 human samples from Holocene Europe as analyzed under the 1000 Genomes Project , it is now found that for the majority of the time that humans have lived in Europe, the people had dark skin, and the genes signifying light skin only appear within the past 8,000 years. This recent and relatively quick process of natural selection suggests to researchers that the traits which spread rapidly were advantageous within that environment, according to the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) .


quote:
Genetic analysis reveals blue eyes evolved before light skin.

Skeletal remains from a 7,000 year old Spaniard have been genetically sequenced and suggests that the evolutionary onset of light-colored eyes predates light skin. The results also gave clues to what his diet might have been like. The lead author on the paper was Iñigo Olalde of Barcelona’s Institut de Biologia Evolutiva and it was published in Nature.

The remains were discovered in northwestern Spain at the La Braña-Arintero site. The skeleton belonged to a man from the Mesolithic Period who has been dubbed La Braña 1. One of his teeth yielded enough DNA to complete a genetic analysis. The results gave important clues about the evolution of appearance and diet in the region.

Though the height and approximate age at time of death were not released, the researchers were able to determine that La Braña 1 did not look quite how they expected. His dark hair and dark skin were not unusual, but he likely had light eyes which was very unusual for this time period. The exact shade of his eyes could not be determined, but it was clear to the researchers that they were not brown. This could very well mean that light eyes made their evolutionary debut before light skin.


quote:
Blond hair originated during the last Ice Age, some 11,000 years ago

Blond hair is most commonly associated with the peoples of Northern Europe. However, blond hair can also be found in communities in Asia, Africa, and Oceania. This characteristic is rather confined to a select group of people who underwent the genetic mutation essential for these colors to appear.

Blond hair is most commonly associated with the peoples of Northern Europe. However, blond hair can also be found in communities in Asia, Africa, and Oceania. This characteristic is rather confined to a select group of people who underwent the genetic mutation essential for these colors to appear.

The origin of the gene giving rise to blond hair color has been traced back to the last Ice Age 11,000 years ago. The extensive study on the genetic mutation was carried out by researchers at three Japanese universities; the research concluded that the genetic mutation occurred around 9,000 BC, as a result of various environmental and evolutionary factors.


Things to think about.

... If that's the case, what about Eskimos or Mongolian race? Why don't they have blonde hair and blue eyes?

Because they didn't get the mutation. Having the environmental condition is no guarantee that a mutation will occur. They are random.

Enjoy


we are limited in our ability to understand
by our ability to understand
Rebel•American•Zen•Deist
... to learn ... to think ... to live ... to laugh ...
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This message is a reply to:
 Message 1 by ski zawaski, posted 11-11-2019 10:06 AM ski zawaski has not yet responded

Replies to this message:
 Message 9 by Theodoric, posted 11-11-2019 5:01 PM RAZD has acknowledged this reply

RAZD
Member (Idle past 349 days)
Posts: 20714
From: the other end of the sidewalk
Joined: 03-14-2004


Message 15 of 73 (866490)
11-12-2019 8:57 AM
Reply to: Message 14 by AZPaul3
11-12-2019 8:19 AM


Re: Impatience Is Not A Virtue
Ok. So clue me in. What homework did I miss?

Ski Zawaski

Enjoy

Edited by Admin, : Rerender to the URL has an accurate title.


we are limited in our ability to understand
by our ability to understand
Rebel•American•Zen•Deist
... to learn ... to think ... to live ... to laugh ...
to share.


Join the effort to solve medical problems, AIDS/HIV, Cancer and more with Team EvC! (click)

This message is a reply to:
 Message 14 by AZPaul3, posted 11-12-2019 8:19 AM AZPaul3 has responded

Replies to this message:
 Message 21 by AZPaul3, posted 11-12-2019 10:58 AM RAZD has responded

RAZD
Member (Idle past 349 days)
Posts: 20714
From: the other end of the sidewalk
Joined: 03-14-2004


(1)
Message 24 of 73 (866523)
11-12-2019 12:06 PM
Reply to: Message 21 by AZPaul3
11-12-2019 10:58 AM


Re: Impatience Is Not A Virtue
I don't do facebook. So, intellectually unable/unwilling is the answer.

He posted the same thing using the same name on his homepage there.

quote:

Worked at Screen Actors Guild (SAG)

Past: North Sea oil

Studied prep for 100 ton Masters License at Chapmans School of Seamanship
Attended from 1998 to 1998

Lives in Walhalla, South Carolina
Lived in N. Hollywood · Lived in Westwego, Louisiana


Could be one of my neighbor's friends ...

Enjoy


we are limited in our ability to understand
by our ability to understand
Rebel•American•Zen•Deist
... to learn ... to think ... to live ... to laugh ...
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This message is a reply to:
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Replies to this message:
 Message 28 by AZPaul3, posted 11-12-2019 12:57 PM RAZD has acknowledged this reply

RAZD
Member (Idle past 349 days)
Posts: 20714
From: the other end of the sidewalk
Joined: 03-14-2004


(2)
Message 29 of 73 (866537)
11-12-2019 1:34 PM
Reply to: Message 26 by Faith
11-12-2019 12:42 PM


Skin Color is inherited and mutated.
It shows that it is possible for all the genetic material to be available since Adam and Eve, ...

No it doesn't, because that does not describe actual skin color genetics.

It's like a staw man argument, a construct that does not represent reality.

quote:
Genes responsible for diversity of human skin colors identified

Summary:

A study of diverse African groups by geneticists has identified new genetic variants associated with skin pigmentation. The findings help explain the vast range of skin color on the African continent, shed light on human evolution and inform an understanding of the genetic risk factors for conditions such as skin cancer.

FULL STORY

Human populations feature a broad palette of skin tones. But until now, few genes have been shown to contribute to normal variation in skin color, and these had primarily been discovered through studies of European populations.

Now, a study of diverse African groups led by University of Pennsylvania geneticists has identified new genetic variants associated with skin pigmentation. The findings help explain the vast range of skin color on the African continent, shed light on human evolution and inform an understanding of the genetic risk factors for conditions such as skin cancer.

... When people think of skin color in Africa most would think of darker skin, but we show that within Africa there is a huge amount of variation, ranging from skin as light as some Asians to the darkest skin on a global level and everything in between. We identify genetic variants affecting these traits and show that mutations influencing light and dark skin have been around for a long time, since before the origin of modern humans."

The region with the strongest associations was in and around the SLC24A5 gene, one variant of which is known to play a role in light skin color in European and some southern Asian populations and is believed to have arisen more than 30,000 years ago. ...

Another region, which contains the MFSD12 gene, had the second strongest association to skin pigmentation. This gene is expressed at low levels in depigmented skin in individuals with vitiligo, a condition where the skin loses pigment in some areas.

Also of interest was that genetic variants at MFSD12, OCA2, and HERC2 associated with light skin pigmentation were at highest frequency in the African San population, which has the oldest genetic lineages in the world, as well as in Europeans.

"In addition," Marks said, "the fact that loss of MFSD12 expression had opposite effects on the two types of melanins, increasing eumelanin production while suppressing pheomelanin, suggests that melanosomes that make pheomelanins might be more related to lysosomes than those that make eumelanin."

Additional associations with skin color were found in the OCA2 and HERC2 genes, which have been linked with skin, eye and hair color variation in Europeans, though the mutations identified are novel. Mutations in OCA2 also cause a form of albinism that is more common in Africans than in other populations. The researchers observed genetic variants in a neighboring gene, HERC2, which regulates the expression of OCA2. Within OCA2, they identified a variant common in Europeans and San that is associated with a shorter version of the protein, with an altered function. They observed a signal of balancing selection of OCA2, meaning that two different versions of the gene have been maintained, in this case for more than 600,000 years.

A final genetic region the researchers found to be associated with skin pigmentation included genes that play a role in ultraviolet light response and melanoma risk. The top candidate gene in the region is DDB1, involved in repairing DNA after exposure to UV light.

The mutations identified by the team play a role in regulating expression of DDB1 and other nearby genes.

"Though we don't yet know the mechanism by which DDB1 is impacting pigmentation, it is of interest to note that this gene, which is highly conserved across species, also plays a role in pigmentation in plants such as tomatoes," said Tishkoff.

The team saw evidence that this region of the genome has been a strong target of natural selection outside of Africa; mutations associated with light skin color swept to nearly 100 percent frequency in non-Africans, one of few examples of a "selective sweep" in all Eurasians; the age of the selective sweep was estimated to be around 60,000 to 80,000 years old, around the time of migration of modern humans out of Africa.

One additional takeaway from this work is a broader picture of the evolution of skin color in humans. Most of the genetic variants associated with light and dark pigmentation from the study appear to have originated more than 300,000 years ago, and some emerged roughly 1 million years ago, ...


Note mutations plural for each gene. Occurring at different times in the past.

... the particulars are irrelevant. ...

The particulars are relevant because they show your straw-man argument to be incomplete.

Enjoy


we are limited in our ability to understand
by our ability to understand
Rebel•American•Zen•Deist
... to learn ... to think ... to live ... to laugh ...
to share.


Join the effort to solve medical problems, AIDS/HIV, Cancer and more with Team EvC! (click)

This message is a reply to:
 Message 26 by Faith, posted 11-12-2019 12:42 PM Faith has responded

Replies to this message:
 Message 30 by Faith, posted 11-12-2019 2:47 PM RAZD has responded

RAZD
Member (Idle past 349 days)
Posts: 20714
From: the other end of the sidewalk
Joined: 03-14-2004


Message 66 of 73 (866610)
11-13-2019 7:45 AM
Reply to: Message 30 by Faith
11-12-2019 2:47 PM


Re: Skin Color is inherited and mutated.
Yes it shows that it's possible, despite all your evolutionist crap. Mutations schmutations, ...

Which you cannot dismiss, no matter how much you hate them. They are real. They exist.

... the Bible, it's all crap.

Especially when you make up stuff that isn't in it.

Can you tell me, dear Faith, what skin color your purported Adam and Eve were? Perhaps Evie was white and Adam was black ... according to the bible?

After all, if it were historically accurate, Jesus would be a (mediterranean) brown skinned black haired Jew.

As the evidence shows, there are four areas of the genome having to do with skin color, each showing mutations to different degrees in different zones of the world.

You can't handle the truth.

Enjoy

Edited by RAZD, : No reason given.

Edited by RAZD, : .

Edited by RAZD, : .


we are limited in our ability to understand
by our ability to understand
Rebel•American•Zen•Deist
... to learn ... to think ... to live ... to laugh ...
to share.


Join the effort to solve medical problems, AIDS/HIV, Cancer and more with Team EvC! (click)

This message is a reply to:
 Message 30 by Faith, posted 11-12-2019 2:47 PM Faith has not yet responded

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