A small farming village in what is today Pakistan, Mehrgarh existed from about 7000BCE until around 3200 BCE, so its whole existence was prior to any of the Old Testament writings and would have been a sizable village at the time Adam was created.
The Eridu culture goes back before even the Sumerian flood legend which predates the Biblical flood legend and allegedly happened even before the Biblical creation.
The oldest signs of civilization there was an agriculture community that had advanced to at least the stage of cooperative public works, for example building canal and irrigation systems. It likely dates to around 4000 BCE and may have been an offshoot or colony of the even older Samarra culture of around 5500 - 4800 BCE.
Well, this is kind of off-topic, but evolutionISTS take that simple organisms are on bottom and complex on top as 'oh, they must have evolved', but think of this: What is more likely to climb to a high spot to evade a giant flood, a snail, or a fox?
Actually, most dating of things from that recent are dated based on a variety of things. One great tool for things that young is radio carbon dating. In particular radiocarbon dating can be used on organic materials including the remnants of the content of things like pottery.
Position can also tell us much; unless there are signs of disturbance something found lower is usually older than something found higher.
But remember, when we are talking about things from 20-30,000 years ago we are talking recent history, and of course things from 5-6,000 years ago are almost yesterday.
It's not like we are talking about really old stuff here.
Re: European Pottery between 6500 and 6000 years ago.
"What makes you think strata are guesses?"
Well, if the strata were laid down quickly (which has some solid evidence*) during the Flood, then the dating is off and what you think to be even 'millions and millions of years' ago could be, simply, a few thousand (ten at most, which also has strong supporting evidence**)
*The layers are parallel, where if they were formed over 'millions of years', erosion would have made their edges crazy and non-parallel.
Ah, yesterday. I seem to actually remember yesterday being Thursday, December 27, 2007, not 5,000 years ago. That's not even yester-millenium. Sorry.
And, if the world is only 10,000 years old, then things that happened 5,000 years ago would be very acient history, and 20-30,000 years ago would be (get this) NOTHING!!!, because I believe that not even the universe was around 20,000 years ago.
Which makes me think. I went to the Grand Teton National Park earlier this year, and the woman said that those were the worlds youngest mountains, at 13 million years old. Isn't that odd that the youngest mountains are 1,300 times older than the earth itself?