I've mentioned renormalization in my last post. It is the art of making apparently infinite expressions in quantum field theory into finite expressions by taking into account that certain quantities get shifted.
In all of our theories today this works out. I'll explain the details of the theories of the Strong and Weak nuclear forces in another post, but first I'd like to continue a bit with Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) and discuss gravity a bit.
In QED there are really only four quantities that get shifted, one is the electron mass and another is the electron charge. (The other two are a bit abstract so I'll leave them). When you properly take these into account the whole theory becomes finite for all diagrams*.
The basic problem with gravity and the main technical reason behind the need for a new theory like String Theory e.t.c. is that this doesn't work for gravity. If you directly turn General Relativity into a quantum field theory (by using the quantising procedure I described in an earlier post) and then take into account the shifting of quantities, the theory is still infinite. Hence gravity does not appear to work as a quantum field theory, so we need some new ideas.
*Proving this is quite a task however and was only really rigorously proven in 1988, fourty years after Schwinger had done it for one loop.
Now we turn to the Weak Nuclear force, or as it is sometimes called quantum flavorodynamics.
The Weak Nuclear force is basically responsible for the vast majority of radioactive decay that we observe. Unlike electromagnetism, which is communicated by the photon, a single massless particle, the Weak force is communicated by three massive particles, called W-, W+ and Z0. Exchanging, emitting or absorbing these causes a particle to change its "flavor" or species. So for example, if a down quark emits a W- it becomes an up quark.
This is how a neutron can decay, for example a neutron is made of one up quark and two down quarks:
The down quarks spits out a W- and becomes a up:
uud + W-
And then the W- decays into an electron (e-) and a neutrino (v):
uud + e- + v
uud, is a proton, so in total we have gone from a neutron to a proton, electron and neutrino. The neutron has decayed.
Another strange thing about the Weak nuclear force is that it is chiral. This means that not every particle can feel or "see" the Weak force. Specifically if a particle is spinning one way (left) it can see the Weak nuclear force and if it is spinning the opposite way (right) it can't. However this is quantum mechanics so a particle is usually both left and right with different probabilities, but all the probabilities to decay come from the left probabilities.
I think the reason why the CERN has not found Dark Matter, is because it is not really matter at all as we think of matter in the conventional sense.
I will add some excerpts from Dark Energy http://physicsweb.org/articles/world/17/5/7 New evidence has confirmed that the expansion of the universe is accelerating under the influence of a gravitationally repulsive form of energy that makes up two-thirds of the cosmos. The existence of gravitationally repulsive dark energy would have dramatic consequences for fundamental physics. The most conservative suggestions are that the universe is filled with a uniform sea of quantum zero-point energy, or a condensate of new particles that have a mass that is 10-39 times smaller than that of the electron. Some researchers have also suggested changes to Einstein's general theory of relativity, such as a new long-range force that moderates the strength of gravity. But there are shortcomings with even the leading conservative proposals. For instance, the zero-point energy density would have to be precisely tuned to a value that is an unbelievable factor of 10120 below the theoretical prediction. The evidence for gravitationally repulsive dark energy is strong, but there are gaps in our knowledge. Dark energy, or something like it, has made numerous appearances in cosmology.
Edited by VenomFangX, : Add original source of the article
New evidence has confirmed that the expansion of the universe is accelerating...[snip]
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Thank you but Ihad included that in my first post..see the edit. I did take what I wrote from another place, but that was an error as I should have checked if I had taken some of it from another source.
Speaking of dark matter, and why it is so mysterious, I found this interesting.
The universe is expanding. "Dark matter" the hand of God? We have to look at the bigger picture on a grand scale. Keep in mind, the bible is very figurative, yet comprehendable.
"Heavens" is what God calls the stars and galaxies; the cosmos.
"Who alone streches out the heavens And tramples down the waves of the sea?" -Job 9:8
"Thus says God the LORD, Who created the heavens and stretched them out, Who spread forth the earth and that which comes from it, Who gives breath to the people on it, And spirit to those who walk on it;" -Isaiah 42:5
Thus says the LORD, your Redeemer, And He who formed you from the womb: "I am the LORD, who makes all things, Who stretches out the heavens all alone, Who spreads abroad the earth by Myself;" -Isaiah 44:24
"I have made the earth, And created man on it. I-My hands-stretched out the heavens, And all their host I haven commanded." -Isaiah 45:12
"I am He, I am the First, I am also the Last. Indeed My hand has laid the foundation of the earth, And My right hand has stretched out the heavens; When I call to them, They stand up together." -Isaiah 48:13
God is spirit, and is invisible: "By faith we understand that the worlds were framed by the word of God, so that the things which are seen were not made of things which are visible." Hebrew 11:3
And if a man claimed these things, He would be called insane, and his works, his writing, would be destroyed. But the bible has survived 3000 years of wars, division, and turmoil and is now in over 390 languages because the True God can deliver His message to mankind. And there is no other book in the history of mankind with scriptures such as this, as old as this, and in this many languages.
The cosmos is God's playground We cannot understand God, His thoughts are higher than ours, and His ways are higher than ours.
Re: Cosmology in the bible, written 3000 years ago
You will find that this website is divided into different fora. Some of those fora are designated as science fora. Posts in those fora are expected to present evidence to support their assertions. Biblical passages are not scientific evidence.
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Your message is in a science forum. It consists of a few sentences demonstrating that you know nothing about the topic, then a raft of bible quotes. This is unacceptable in a science forum.
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