Spring has arrived. Farmers are going to work in regional communities on the plains and in the mountains of Baluchistan and Afghanistan, as their ancestors did two thousand years before them.
Artists in these communities are carving figurines and painting toys. Girls groom their hair with decorated combs. Everyone is preparing for the spring ritual observances, when they will gather with the residents of neighboring communities and pour out libations from shells imported from the seacoast.
Each community has its distinct customs and style of art. But as a man sets out on his last journey in a mountain pass far to the northwest, interaction between residents in these settlements is on the rise. For centuries they have traded and intermarried. But lately the younger people prefer to move away from the mountain villages in order to make their homes in the growing settlements on the river. This puts them near the boat landings where their grains, art, and copper are shipped out and the oils and sea shells are brought in. With each passing generation these settlements along the river grow.
We know their river as the Ravi in the Indus Valley region (now Punjab, Pakistan). The Ravi people, together with their contemporaries living on other riverbanks in the area, are on the verge of building one of the great civilizations of the world. Scholars many centuries hence will call their culture Harappan.
Like their contemporaries in societies on other riverbanks far away, these people are in the earliest stages of developing a system of writing. Their Harappan script, though, will be possess a unique beauty.
the Yangshao Culture Culture flourished. Now I realize that this is 2000 to 3000 years before biblical creation, but their pottery was still magnificent. You can see examples here.
By the time of Adam, the Yanshao culture was superseded by by the Longshan Culture. Their potter was quite different than the earlier Yangshao pottery. One of the important points is that by the time of Adam, peoples in several areas of the world had found ways to heat kilns to over 1000 degrees, an indication of forced air induction, had domesticated most animals, had developed some pretty sophisticated machinery like the potters wheel.
While we are talking about pottery, we should also touch on the Jomon Pottery tradition which continued from about 10,000 BCE until about 300 BCE. The Jomon style was impressed with a twisted rope. By the time we are discussing, contemporary with Adam, they were making beautiful complicated pieces such as this example from the Middle Period.Aslan is not a Tame Lion
People of northeast Asian ancestry have been settling in the islands of the west Pacific Ocean. The vast region they explore stretches from Easter Island in the east to Madagasgar in the west. This swath of the earth's surface, called the Oceanic Arena, is the one most newly occupied by Homo sapiens.
The islanders take to the ocean in sophisticated outrigger canoes. They possess a formidable ability to navigate the oceans. Their sophisticated knowledge of astronomy, ocean currents, and meteorology allows them to complete ambitious sea voyages using no instruments of navigation. This expertise is passed from father to son through memorized songs and chants.
They speak languages in the Austronesian language group, the ancestor languages to Micronesian, Polynesian and other languages spoken in the Asia-Pacific today.
They make tools carved from granite, marble, sandstone, limestone, jade as well as wood, bone and coral. They live by fishing and gardening. They cultivate rice and other grains, raise pigs and cattle, and make pottery. They dance, they sing, and they play instruments.
For several centuries some of their number have been living on a mountainous tropical island. In time they will name the island Taiwan.
Here, in settlements along the coasts and in the lakes and rivers lining the steep mountains, the settlers are expanding their range of crops. They are learning to cultivate yams, millet, taro and cane as well as fruits indigenous to the island: coconuts, sago, breadfruit, and bananas. They have begun raising chickens and domesticating dogs. The coastal settlers send messages quickly across great distances by blowing conch shells. The mountain settlers are developing a style of singing that takes advantage of natural acoustics to carry their voices far.
These Austronesian people will make their home here for thousands of years to come. Some of their descendants will set forth for other islands and give rise to the great aboriginal cultures of the southwest Pacific, including those of Australia and the Philippines. 3,000 years from now they will begin processing metal to make tools.
The Botai people are building circular corrals to support the domestication of horses.
quote: From 3600 to 2300 B.C., the Botai culture lived in the steppe environment of Kazakhstan, where temperatures can reach subzero during winters. Domesticated horses could have weathered the deep chill, allowing the Botai people to stay put all-year round.
'Horses can survive ice storms and don't need heated barns or winter fodder,' said co-researcher Sandra Olsen of the Carnegie Museum of Natural History in Pittsburgh.
Sheep and cattle are not well suited for sub-zero climates and would have kept the Botai on the move.
'The very first horse domestication was probably a bit earlier in the Ukraine or western Russia,' Olsen said. 'Then some horse-herders migrated east to Kazakhstan.'
quote:However, subsequent radiocarbon dating on the Tartaria finds pushed the date of the tablets (and therefore of the whole Vinča culture) much further back, to as long ago as 5500 BC, well before the Sumerian era  (although this is disputed in the light of apparently contradictory stratigraphic evidence ).
If the symbols are indeed a form of writing, then writing in the Danubian culture would far predate the earliest Sumerian cuneiform script or Egyptian . They would thus be the world's earliest known form of writing. This claim remains controversial.